संज्ञा

संज्ञा और उसके प्रकार

परिभाषा- किसी व्‍यक्ति वस्‍तु, अथवा स्‍थान,

 जाति या भाव के नाम को संज्ञा कहते है

उदाहरण- रमेश, इलाहाबाद,गंगा, यमुना

हिमालय, सेब, मोटरसाइकिल आदि।

संज्ञा के प्रकार

संज्ञा पांच प्रकार की होती है-

1.व्‍यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा

2.जातिवाचक संज्ञा

3.द्रव्‍यवाचक संज्ञा

4.समूहवाचक संज्ञा

5.भाववाचक संज्ञा

1- व्‍यक्विाचक संज्ञा व्‍यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा वह संज्ञा है जिससे केवल एक ही व्‍यक्ति या वस्‍तु का बोध होता है। जैसे

 व्‍यक्ति‍यों के नाम- दीपक, राजेश, मोहन , राम, श्‍याम आदि।

देशों के नाम- भारत, पाकिस्‍तान, अफगानिस्‍तान, अमेरिका, इग्‍लैंड आदि

शहरों के नाम- इलाहाबाद, कानपुर, मेरठ आदि

पुस्‍तकों के नाम- महाभारत, रामायण, गीता, कुरान आदि

उदाहरण- 1-गंगा नदी कई हजारों मील की यात्रा करके समाप्‍त करके समुद्र में मिलती है।

2-मोहन एक परिश्रमी और ईमानदार बालक है

3-इलाहाबाद के अमरूद बहुत मशहूर है।

2- जातिवाचक संज्ञा- जिस संज्ञा से व्‍यक्‍तियों या वस्‍तुओं की पूरी जाति का बोध हो

जैसे- मनुष्‍य– लड़का, लड़की आदमी, औरत भाई, बहन,

पशु-पक्षी-  तोता, मोर गाय,घोड़ा आदि।

वस्‍तुओं के नाम- घर, मेज, कुर्सी, किताब आदि।

पद या व्‍यवसायों के नाम- शिक्षक, लेखक, मंत्री आदि।

प्राकृतिक तत्‍वों के नाम- तूफान, बिजली, वर्षा, भूकंप, ज्‍वालामुखी

उदाहरण- 1-शिक्षक देश के भविष्‍य को बनाते है।

2- लड़के बगीचे में खेल रहे है।

3- द्रव्‍यवाचक संज्ञा- जिस संज्ञा से द्रव या पदार्थ का बोध हो  उसको द्रव्‍यवाचक संज्ञा कहते है। जैसे-

धातुओं तथा खनिजों के नाम- लोहा, सोना, चॉदी, पीतल आदि

खाने पीने की वस्‍तुओं के नाम- पानी, शरबत, घी, तेल आदि

उदाहरण- 1- गिलास में पानी है

2- दीये में तेल खत्‍म हो रहा है

3- यह सोने की जंजीर है।

4-समूहवाचक संज्ञा- जिस संज्ञा से अनेक वस्‍तुओं या प्राणियों का बोध होता है, उसे समूहवाचक संज्ञा कहते है।

जैसे-

व्‍यक्तियों का समूह- परिवार,संघ, सेना,

वस्‍तुओं का समूह- ढेर, गुच्‍छा, पुंज आदि।

उदाहरण

1-भारतीय सेना ने पैदल मार्च किया।

2- भेड़ो का झुण्‍ड जा रहा है।

3- क्रिकेट टीम मैच खेलेगी।

4- चाबियों का गुच्‍छा

5-भाववाचक संज्ञा- जिस शब्‍द से किसी वस्‍तु अथवा व्‍यक्तियों के गुण, दशा भाव, व्‍यापार, धर्म अवस्‍था, स्‍वभाव का बोध होता है, उसे भाववाचक संज्ञा कहते है। भाववाचक संज्ञा  की गणना नही हो सकती है। • • •भाववाचक संज्ञा तीन प्रकार के शब्‍दो से बनती है-

1.क्रियाओं से

2.संज्ञा से

3.विशेषण से

क्रियाओं से- काट से काटना, लिखना से लिखवाट, बहना से बहाव आदि

संज्ञा से – लड़का से लड़कपन, मित्र से मित्रता, मानव से मानवता, गॉधी से गॉंधीवाद, शिव से शिवत्‍व आदि।

विशेषण से- महा से म‍हि‍मा, गरम से गरमी, सरल से सरलता, भोला से भोलापन आदि।

उदाहरण-

1-राम की उम्र 25 वर्ष हो चुकी है लेकिन अभी उसका लड़कपन नही गया।

2-दुनिया में अभी भी मानवता बची हुयी है।

3-रमेश की लिखावट बहुत सुन्‍दर है।

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